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Principles of Transparency
and Best Practice

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Table of Contents

1. Website

i) The URL address of official journal web site
https://www.e-neurospine.org/.
ii) ‘Aims & Scope’ statement (https://www.e-neurospine.org/about/index.php)
Neurospine provides spine clinicians and researchers with peer-reviewed articles on basic and clinical investigation of spine and spinal cord to enhance patient management, education, clinical or experimental research, and professionalism. The journal will consider submissions in areas on craniocervical to lumbosacral spine including the followings: neuroscience and pain research, bone and mineral research, disc and joint research, bio and industrial technology, pathophysiology, risk factors, symptomatology, imaging, treatment, rehabilitation of spine, spinal cord and peripheral nerve diseases. Specifically, basic and technology researches include the most influential research papers from all fields of science and technology, revolutionizing what physicians and researchers practicing the art of spinal neurosurgery worldwide know. Thus, we welcome valuable basic and translational technology research articles to introduce cutting-edge research of fundamental sciences and technology in clinical spinal neurosurgery. Clinical or basic research articles, review articles, case reports, technical notes, and letters to the editor written in English will be accepted.
iii) Readership
It is primarily for clinicians and researchers who care patients with spine and spinal cord diseases. They are able to obtain tailored information to adopt for their research and practice. Its readership can be expanded to other positions: • Researchers can get the recent topics of clinical research in spine and spinal cord field and detailed research methods; • Clinicians in the field can get the new information and recent development for care of patients; • Medical teacher can access and adopt a variety of data in medical education; • Allied health professionals including nurses are able to get the recent information for care of patients with spine and spinal cord diseases; • Medical health students can understand the recent trends of the field and interesting cases for their work; • Policy makers are able to reflect the results of the articles to the nation-wide health care policies for patients with spine and spinal cord diseases; • The public, especially family of patients with spine and spinal cord diseases are able to read the advancement in their family’s diseases so that they have a better knowledge on the diseases and a confidence in the clinicians’ devotion to their family.
iv) Authorship criteria
Authors are required to make clear of their contribution to their manuscript in cover letter. To be listed as an author one should have contributed substantially to all three categories established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE): (1) conception and design, or acquisition, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) final approval of the version to be published; and (4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and identify all individual authors as well as the group name. Journals generally list other members of the group in the Acknowledgments. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.
Authors are responsible for replying to all questions asked by reviewers or editors that relate to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work. All persons who have made a substantial contribution, but who are not eligible as authors, should be named in the acknowledgments. Authors are expected to consider carefully the way authors should be listed and ordered before submitting their manuscripts, and to provide a definitive list of authors with their original submission. Any addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made before the manuscript has been accepted—and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for requesting a change in the list of authors; and (b) written confirmation (by e-mail or letter) from all authors to say that they agree with the addition, removal, or rearrangement.
v) Duplicate submission and redundant publication
Manuscripts submitted to Neurospine must be original or review papers not previously published and not being considered for publication elsewhere. Neither the whole—nor any part of the text or illustrations of an original paper—should be (or have been) published elsewhere. The original raw data must be available for review by the Editor if necessary.
vi) ISSN
pISSN 2586-6583 eISSN 2586-6591

2. Name of Journal

The official journal title has been Neurospine since March issue 2018. It continues the Korean Journal of Spine (2004–2017, pSSN:1738-2262, eISSN:2093-6729) from March issue 2004. It is the official journal of the Korean Spinal Neurosurgery Society (http://www.neurospine.or.kr/eng/).

3. Peer Review Process

All manuscripts are considered confidential. They are peer-reviewed by at least 2 anonymous reviewers selected by the Editor. The corresponding author is notified as soon as possible of the Editor's decision to accept, reject, or ask for revisions. The average time interval for an initial review process that involves both editorial and peer reviews is approximately 1 month; occasionally, there are unavoidable delays, usually because a manuscript needs multiple reviews or several revisions. When manuscripts are returned for revision, a cover letter from the Editor provides directions that should be followed carefully. When submitting the revised manuscript, authors should include a Response Letter, which describes how the manuscript has been revised. A point-by-point response to the Editor should be included with the revised manuscript. Authors who plan to resubmit but cannot meet this deadline should contact the Editorial Office. Manuscripts held for revision will be retained for a maximum of 90 days. The revised manuscript and the author's comments will be reviewed again. If a manuscript is completely acceptable, according to the criteria set forth in these instructions, it is scheduled for publication in the next available issue.
We neither guarantee the acceptance without review nor very short peer review times for unsolicited manuscripts. Commissioned manuscripts also are reviewed before publication.
We adopt double-blind peer review in which case, not only authors but also reviewers do not know each other.

4. Ownership and Management

i) Information about the ownership
This journal is owned by the publisher, Korean Spinal Neurosurgery Society
(http://www.neurospine.or.kr/eng/).
ii) Management team
Journal Manager
Yoon Ha      Editor-in-Chief, Yonsei University, Korea
Manager of the Review Process
Seung-Jae Hyun      Associate Editor, Seoul National University, Korea
Manuscript Editor
Hwan Tae Ahn      Korean Spinal Neurosurgery Society, Korea
Layout Editor
Mi-Kyung Kim      Academya Publishing Co., Korea
Website and JATS XML File Producers
Yoon-Sang Cho      M2community, Korea

5. Governing Body

The governing body is the journal's editorial board (https://www.e-neurospine.org/about/editorial.php).

6. Editorial Team and Contact Information

i) Editorial team
Editorial Board’s website is https://www.e-neurospine.org/about/editorial.php.
All of the members are responsible to improve the scientific quality of the journal and to implement editorial policy approved by the editorial board.
ii) Contact information
Publisher Korean Spinal Neurosurgery Societ
#407, Dong-A Villate 2 Town, 350, Seocho-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 06631, Korea
Tel: +82-2-585-5455 Fax: +82-2-523-6812
E-mail: ksns1987@gmail.com
Editorial Office
Department of Neurosurgery, Spine and Spinal Cord Institute, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea
Tel: +82-2-2228-2172 Fax: +82-2-313-5970
E-mail: theneurospine@gmail.com

7. Copyright and Licensing

i) Copyright policy
All published papers become the permanent property of Korean Spinal Neurosurgery Society. Copyrights of all published materials are owned by Korean Spinal Neurosurgery Society.
Permission must be obtained from Korean Spinal Neurosurgery Society for any commercial use of materials. Every author should sign the copyright transfer agreement forms.
ii) Licensing information
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited for non-commercial purpose (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/").
iii) Deposit policy
According to the deposit policy (self-archiving policy) of Sherpa/Romeo (http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/), authors cannot archive preprint (i.e. prerefereeing), but they can archive postprint (i.e., final draft post-refereeing). Authors can archive publisher's version/PDF.

8. Author Fees

There is no article processing charge (APC), also known as a publication fee including submission fee, for accepted articles.

9. Process for Identification of and Dealing With Allegations of Research Misconduct

When the Journal faces suspected cases of research and publication misconduct such as a redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fabricated data, changes in authorship, undisclosed conflicts of interest, an ethical problem discovered with the submitted manuscript, a reviewer who has appropriated an author’s idea or data, complaints against editors, and other issues, the resolving process will follow the flowchart provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts). The Editorial Board will discuss the suspected cases and reach a decision. We will not hesitate to publish errata, corrigenda, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.
Neurospine adheres to the research and publication ethics policies outlined in International Standards for Editors and Authors (http://publicationethics.org) and the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (http://icmje.org). Any studies involving human subject must comply with the principles of the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Clinical research should be approved by the Institutional Review Board, as well through patient consent. A patient's personal information cannot be published in any form. However, if it is absolutely necessary to use a patient's personal information, the consent of the patient or his/her guardian will be needed before publishing. Animal studies should be performed in compliance with all relevant guidelines, observing the standards described in the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
Cases that require editorial expressions of concern or retraction shall follow the COPE flowcharts available from: http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts. If correction is needed, it will follow the ICMJE Recommendation for Corrections, Retractions, Republications and Version Control available from:
http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/publishing-and-editorial-issues/corrections-and-version-control.html as follows:
Honest errors are a part of science and publishing and require publication of a correction when they are detected. Corrections are needed for errors of fact. Minimum standards are as follows: First, it shall publish a correction notice as soon as possible, detailing changes from and citing the original publication on both an electronic and numbered print page that is included in an electronic or a print Table of Contents to ensure proper indexing; Second, it shall post a new article version with details of the changes from the original version and the date(s) on which the changes were made through CrossMark; Third, it shall archive all prior versions of the article. This archive can be either directly accessible to readers; and Fourth, previous electronic versions shall prominently note that there are more recent versions of the article via CrossMark.

10. Publication Ethics

i) Journal policies on authorship and contributorship
Authors are required to make clear of their contribution to their manuscript in cover letter. To be listed as an author one should have contributed substantially to all three categories established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE): (1) conception and design, or acquisition, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) final approval of the version to be published; and (4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and identify all individual authors as well as the group name. Journals generally list other members of the group in the Acknowledgments. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship. Authors are responsible for replying to all questions asked by reviewers or editors that relate to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work. All persons who have made a substantial contribution, but who are not eligible as authors, should be named in the acknowledgments. Authors are expected to consider carefully the way authors should be listed and ordered before submitting their manuscripts, and to provide a definitive list of authors with their original submission. Any addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made before the manuscript has been accepted—and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for requesting a change in the list of authors; and (b) written confirmation (by e-mail or letter) from all authors to say that they agree with the addition, removal, or rearrangement.
ii) How the journal will handle complaints and appeals
The policy of the journal is primarily aimed at protecting the authors, reviewers, editors, and the publisher of the journal. If not described below, the process of handling complaints and appeals follows the guidelines of the Committee of Publication Ethics available from: https://publicationethics.org/appeals
Who complains or makes an appeal?
Submitters, authors, reviewers, and readers may register complaints and appeals in a variety of cases as follows: falsification, fabrication, plagiarism, duplicate publication, authorship dispute, conflict of interest, ethical treatment of animals, informed consent, bias or unfair/inappropriate competitive acts, copyright, stolen data, defamation, and legal problem. If any individuals or institutions want to inform the cases, they can send a letter to editor through https://www.e-neurospine.org/about/contact.php. For the complaints or appeals, concrete data with answers to all factual questions (who, when, where, what, how, why) should be provided.
Who is responsible to resolve and handle complaints and appeals?
The Editor, Editorial Board, or Editorial Office is responsible for them.
What may be the consequence of remedy?
It depends on the type or degree of misconduct. The consequence of resolution will follow the guidelines of the Committee of Publication Ethics (COPE).
iii) Journal policies on conflicts of interest/competing interests
The corresponding author of an article is asked to inform the Editor of the authors’ potential conflicts of interest possibly influencing their interpretation of data. A potential conflict of interest should be disclosed in the cover letter even when the authors are confident that their judgments have not been influenced in preparing the manuscript. Such conflicts may be financial support or private connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, or academic problems. Disclosure form shall be same with ICMJE Uniform Disclosure Form for Potential Conflicts of Interest (http://www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf).
The Editor will decide whether the information on the conflict should be included in the published paper. Before publishing such information, the Editor will consult with the corresponding author. In particular, all sources of funding for a study should be explicitly stated. The Neurospine asks referees to let its Editor know of any conflict of interest before reviewing a particular manuscript.
iv) Journal policies on data sharing and reproducibility
Until 2020, authors will be encouraged to share their data openly, but starting in 2021, they will be mandated to do so. The related regulation follows the open data sharing policy outlined below.
Open data sharing policy For clarification on result accuracy and reproducibility of the results, raw data or analysis data will be deposited to a public repository, for example, Harvard Dataverse (https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/) after acceptance of the manuscript. Therefore, submission of the raw data or analysis data is mandatory. If the data is already a public one, its URL site or sources should be disclosed. If data cannot be publicized, it can be negotiated with the editor. If there are any inquiries on depositing data, authors should contact the editorial office.

Clinical data sharing policy This journal follows the data sharing policy described in “Data Sharing Statements for Clinical Trials: A Requirement of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors” (https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2017.32.7.1051). As of July 1, 2018 manuscripts submitted to ICMJE journals that report the results of interventional clinical trials must contain a data sharing statement as described below. Clinical trials that begin enrolling participants on or after January 1, 2019 must include a data sharing plan in the trial's registration. The ICMJE's policy regarding trial registration is explained at https://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/publishing-and-editorial-issues/clinical-trial-registration.html. If the data sharing plan changes after registration this should be reflected in the statement submitted and published with the manuscript, and updated in the registry record. All of the authors of research articles that deal with interventional clinical trials must submit data sharing plan of example 1 to 4 in Table 1. Based on the degree of sharing plan, authors should deposit their data after deidentification and report the DOI of the data and the registered site.

Table 1. Examples of data sharing statements that fulfill these ICMJE requirements*
Element Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4
Will individual participant data be available (including data dictionaries)? Yes Yes Yes No
What data in particular will be shared? All individual participant data collected during the trial, after deidentification. Individual participant data that underlie the results reported in this article, after deidentification (text, tables, figures, and appendices). Individual participant data that underlie the results reported in this article, after deidentification (text, tables, figures, and appendices). Not available
What other documents will be available? Study protocol, statistical analysis plan, informed consent form, clinical study report, analytic code Study protocol, statistical analysis plan, analytic code Study protocol Not available
When will data be available (start and end dates)? Immediately following publication. No end date. Beginning at 3 months and ending at 5 years following the article publication. Beginning at 9 months and ending at 36 months following the article publication. Not applicable
With whom? Anyone who wishes to access the data. Researchers who provide a methodologically sound proposal. Investigators whose proposed use of the data has been approved by an independent review committee (“learned intermediary”) identified for this purpose. Not applicable
For what types of analyses? Any purpose To achieve aims in the approved proposal. For individual participant data meta-analysis. Not applicable
By what mechanism will data be made available? Data are available indefinitely at (link to be included). Proposals should be directed to xxx@yyy. To gain access, data requestors will need to sign a data access agreement. Proposals may be submitted up to 36 months following article publication. After 36 months the data will be available in our University's data warehouse but without investigator support other than deposited metadata. Not applicable
Data are available for 5 years at a third-party website (link to be included). Information regarding submitting proposals and accessing data may be found at (link to be provided).
ICMJE, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.
*These examples are meant to illustrate a range of, but not all, data sharing options.
v) Journal's policy on ethical oversight
When the Journal faces suspected cases of research and publication misconduct such as a redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fabricated data, changes in authorship, undisclosed conflicts of interest, an ethical problem discovered with the submitted manuscript, a reviewer who has appropriated an author’s idea or data, complaints against editors, and other issues, the resolving process will follow the flowchart provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts). The Editorial Board will discuss the suspected cases and reach a decision. We will not hesitate to publish errata, corrigenda, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.
vi) Journal's policy on intellectual property
All published papers become the permanent property of the Korean Spinal Neurosurgery Society. Copyrights of all published materials are owned by the Korean Spinal Neurosurgery Society
vii) Journal's options for postpublication discussions and corrections
The postpublication discussion is available through letter to the editor. If any readers have a concern on any articles published, they can submit letter to the editor on the articles. If there founds any errors or mistakes in the article, it can be corrected through errata, corrigenda, or retraction.

11. Publishing Schedule

It is published in English quarterly on the last days of March, June, September, and December.

12. Access

This is an open-access journal distributed under the term of the Creative Common Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creative-commons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

13. Archiving

It is accessible without barrier from PubMed Central (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/journals/3453/) Korea Citation Index (https://kci.go.kr), or National Library of Korea (http://nl.go.kr) in the event a journal is no longer published.

14. Revenue Sources

Revenue sources of journal were from the support of publisher (the Korean Spinal Neurosurgery), Korea Government’s support, author fee for print copies, and advertising rates.

15. Advertising

We accept advertising and sponsorship for its printed journal according to the following principles:

  • - Advertising is separate from content. Advertisers and sponsors have no advance knowledge of our editorial contents, nor do the editors have advance knowledge of advertisers. Content is never altered, added, or deleted to accommodate advertising. Advertisers and sponsors have no input regarding any of our editorial decisions or advertising policies.
  • - We reserve the right to decline or cancel any advertisement at any time.
  • - Advertisements for pharmaceutical products must conform to all regulations and policies of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Republic of Korea in every respect.

16. Direct Marketing

Journal propagation has been done through the journal web site and distribution of an introduction pamphlet. Invitations to submit a manuscript are usually focused on the presenters at conferences, seminars, or workshops if the topic is related to the journal's aims and scope.



Editorial Office
Department of Neurosurgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine
50-1, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea
Tel: +82-2-2228-2172  E-mail: theneurospine@gmail.com
The Korean Spinal Neurosurgery Society
#407, Dong-A Villate 2nd Town, 350 Seocho-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 06631, Korea
Tel: +82-2-585-5455  Fax: +82-2-2-523-6812  E-mail: ksns1987@gmail.com
Business License No.: 209-82-62443

Copyright © The Korean Spinal Neurosurgery Society. All rights reserved.

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